*************************************************************************** * * * ELECTRONIC NEWSLETTER FOR THE HISTORY OF ASTRONOMY * * * * Published by the Working Group for the History of Astronomy * * in the Astronomische Gesellschaft * * * * Number 11, September 22, 1995 * * * * A translation of * * * * ELEKTRONISCHE MITTEILUNGEN ZUR ASTRONOMIEGESCHICHTE * * Nr. 11, 27. Juni 1995 * * * * Edited by: Dr. Wolfgang R. Dick <wdi@potsdam.ifag.de> * * * * Translated by: Mr. Donald Bellunduno <76450.1741@CompuServe.COM> * * * *************************************************************************** Contents -------- 1. Lutz D. Schmadel: Minor Planet 4775 named in memory of Peter Andreas Hansen 2. Commemorative medals for astronomers 3. Museums, exhibits, and memorials 4. Meeting of the Working Group for the History of Astronomy at Bonn 5. Meeting on the occasion of the 200th birthday of Peter Andreas Hansen 6. Conference calendar 1995 7. New books Acknowledgements Imprint Addendum by the Translator / Space Calendar - July 1995 ........................................................................... Item 1 ENHA No. 11, Sep 22, 1995 ........................................................................... Minor Planet 4775 named in memory of Peter Andreas Hansen --------------------------------------------------------- by Lutz D. Schmadel, Heidelberg The Minor Planet with the preliminary designation 1927TC, found by Max Wolf on 3 October 1927 at Heidelberg-Koenigsstuhl, has recently received the designation (4775) Hansen in memory of Peter Andreas Hansen (1795-1874), leading theoretical astronomer of the nineteenth century, on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of his birth. Born in Tondern, Schleswig, he became director of the Seeberg Observatory near Gotha {see planet (1346) in 1825. His most important work was the improvement of the theories and tables of the orbits of the principal bodies in the solar system. Hansen's lunar theory -- yielding a very accurate new value of the astronomical unit -- was used for the Nautical Almanac until 1922. He invented the method of perturbations in coordinates. Simon Newcomb (see planet 855), who continued his work, considered Hansen the greatest master of celestial mechanics since Laplace {see planet (4628)}. The name was proposed by L.K.Kristensen and endorsed by L.D.Schmadel. ........................................................................... Item 2 ENHA No. 11, Sep 22, 1995 ........................................................................... Commemorative medals for astronomers ------------------------------------ The Sparkasse Plauen has offered, through a special pressing, a medal to honor Georg Samuel Doerffel (1643-1688). The front side displays a portrait of the priest / astronomer and the flip side depicts the Doerffel memorial in Plauen. The press has produced 500 medals in fine silver, which will be offered to the public at DM 55, and there will also be 15 medals offered in fine gold, at DM 850. Diameter of the medal is 35 mm. Address of the savings bank: Sparkasse Plauen, Bahnhofstr. 61, D-08523 Plauen, Germany, Fax# 03741/2900-312 To commemorate the centre and the castle of the village Prohlis (today belonging to Dresden) after it's unfortunate demolition in 1975 and 1985, resp., a medal has been produced by the Dresdner Bank and the Museum at Prohlis. The front side displays the farm which was saved from the demolition with the castle's tower in the background. On the reverse side there is a depiction of the farmer / astronomer Johann Georg Palitzsch (1723-1788). It has been produced in pure silver, for DM 35.00 (with case DM 40.00), and in pewter, with case DM 8.00; diameter of the medal is 30 mm. Address: Heimat- and Palitzsch-Museum Prohlis, Gamigstrasse 24, D-01239 Dresden, Germany ........................................................................... Item 3 ENHA No. 11, Sep 22, 1995 ........................................................................... Museums, exhibits, and memorials -------------------------------- The William Herschel Museum in Bath, England, houses itself in the former abode of the astronomer, where he discovered the planet Uranus in 1781. Address: 19, New King Street, Bath, BA1 2BL, U.K., Phone (0225) 311342 Opening hours: March until October daily, November through February only on Sat / Sun, 2pm - 5pm. The exhibit rooms of the Royal Photographic Society in Bath, England, are displaying treasures from the archives of the society, for example, the very first photograph, cameras and other material from the early period of photography, among these also items from John Herschel. Address: Milsom Street, Bath BA1 1 DN, U.K., Phone (0225) 462841 Opening hours: Daily, 9.30am - 5.30pm The astronomy department in the Deutsches Museum at Munich was enhanced through a new exhibit for amateur astronomy, and through the exhibit of an original 7.5 m radio telescope of the type "Wuerzburg Riese" in the museum's open-air area after 3 years of restoration work. After 1945, the field of radioastronomy became operational with telescopes of this type. The telescope on display has observed radio waves from the sky at Dwingeloo, the Netherlands, up until the 1960's. Together with two other radio telescopes of similar type, it was able to detect the spiral structure of the Milky Way, and to investigate it thoroughly (1954). In addition, solar radio signals were also explored, e.g., during bursts of the solar corona (1961). The name "Wuerzburg Riese" is a German code word from the Second World War for a radar instrument, which included besides other parts of the device (transmitter, receiver, etc.) a parabolic antenna. The cartographic department of the Staatsbibliothek (State Library) at Berlin displays several terrestrial and celestial globes. Among them are two celestial globes by Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr (Nuernberg 1730), and by Carl Ferdinand Welland (Weimar 1831-32). Address: Staatsbibliothek, Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Haus 2, Potsdamer Str. 33, D-10785 Berlin, Germany, Phone (030) 266-2839/2838 Opening hours of the cartographic department: Mon - Fri 9am - 5pm, Sat 9am - 1pm During a visit of the Castle Eltz near Wierschem, Kreis (district) Mayen-Koblenz (Land Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany), one should pay attention in the Schatzkammer (treasury) also to the astronomical ornamental instruments: three small terrestrial, planetary, and celestial globes by Abraham Drentwett II (Augsburg around 1685), sculpted from the figures of Hercules, Chronos and Atlas. They are made of silver, and partly overlaid with gold. Their total hight is approximately 22 cm. There is also an equatorial table sundial with a minute hand, which belonged to the collection of Philipp Carl of Eltz (1665-1743), Kurfuerst (prince elector) of Mainz and Reichs-Erzkanzler (arch-chancellor of the German Reich). The sundial, in the exhibit falsely called a sextant, was put together in Dresden around 1735. Literature about the globes: Werner Kummer, Liste alter Globen ... In: Der Globusfreund 28-29 (1980) p. 67, 31/32 (1983) 15, 40/41 (1992) 89. On the 22nd of August 1995 at 4pm the redesigned department "History of Surveying" was reopened in the Museum fuer Kunst und Kulturgeschichte (Museum of Art and Cultural History) in Dortmund, Germany (Hansastr. 3). It includes also interesting items from the history of astronomy (cf. Mitteilungen zur Astronomiegeschichte No. 4, p. 3). The new opening hours are: Tues - Sun 10am - 5pm. The London Science Museum is displaying on a 100 sq. m floor space an exhibit portraying the development of the mirror telescope in the 19th century (metal mirrors and early glass mirrors). Among the items is a model of the famous telescope of the observatory Birr Castle, in Ireland, the diameter of which measured 1.80 m. Also on display is an original metal mirror by William Parsons, Third Earl of Rosse (1800-1867). With the title "400 years of Mercator - 400 years of atlases" the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (Bavarian State Library) of Munich presented from the depths of its collections from the 5th of April until the 1st of July 1995 an exhibit dedicated to the history of the atlas from the beginnings up until the satellite-based atlas, and also including the development of star atlases. For additional information: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Ludwigstr. 16, Muenchen, Phone: 089/286380, Fax: 089/2368293. "... und sie bewegt sich doch - Astronomie im alten Buch" ("... and they *are* in movement - astronomy in old books") was the title of an exhibit of the University Library of Augsburg in the Stadtsparkasse Augsburg, Halderstr. 3, from the 30th of May up until the 14th of July 1995. The Deutsches Schiffahrtsmuseum (German Museum of Shipping) at Bremerhaven invited from 6 May to 10 September 1995 to the exhibit "From sailors to astronauts - navigation from 1500 to 2000". Address: Van-Ronzelen-Str., D-27568 Bremerhaven, Germany "The World in Your Hands" was an exhibit of the Museum Boerhaave at Leiden, The Netherlands, from 18 March to 24 September 1995. Catalogue in English: Dfl 40.00, Supplement (vignettes of the globes) Dfl 5.00. "The Earth & the Heavens - The Art of the Mapmaker" is an exhibit by the British Library Galleries in the British Museum (Great Russell, London, WC1) from the 7th of July until the 22th of October 1995. Among the items are numerous celestial charts. Catalogue: Peter Whitfield, The Mapping of the Heavens, British Library, [1995, in print]. Peter Whitfield, The Image of the World, British Library, 1994. For further information in the WWW: http://portico.bl.uk/exhibitions/maps/overview.html "100 Jahre Roentgenstrahlen" ("100 years of X-rays") is the name of the exhibit of the Julius Maximilians University at Wuerzburg, Germany, which will be on display from the 14th February until the 19th of November 1995 in the Martin von Wagner Museum (Southern wing of the Residenz). Besides displays about W.C.Roentgen and his discovery also X-ray astronomy is presented. Opening hours: daily 10am to 6pm, closed on Mondays. Catalogue to the exhibit: DM 28.00. Address for further information: Geschaeftsstelle fuer das Roentgenjahr, Sanderrring 2, D-97070 Wuerzburg, Tel. 0931/51573, Fax 0931/17840, e-mail address: planung@zv.uni-wuerzburg. The Physikalisches Institut of the University, Am Hubland, displays more items from the Nachlass of Roentgen. Opened Monday to Friday. In order to celebrate the 500th birthday of Peter Apian an exhibit is on display in the Stadtmuseum (city museum) at Ingolstadt, Germany, from the 7th of October and will continue up until the end of November 1995. It portrays Apian as mathematician, book-printer, publisher, geographer, cartographer, astronomer, university instructor, collector of inscriptions, builder of instruments, publisher of a book on physics, friend of the Kaiser, "Hofmarksherr" and "Pfalzgraf" (Count Palatine). Included in the components of the exhibition is the Astronomicum Caesareum, a master piece in the art of printing. Address: Auf der Schanz 45, D-85049 Ingolstadt, Phone 0841/305-1905. Opening hours: Tues - Sat 9am - 12am and 1pm - 5pm / Sun 10am - 5pm There will be an anniversary edition including an exhibits catalogue. The Norman Lockyer Observatory in Sidmouth, England, holds several historical instruments such as a 10 inch refractor with a 12 inch photographic tube by Howard Grubb (Dublin). The observatory was founded by Sir Norman Lockyer (1836 - 1920) in the year 1912 and served up until 1961 astrophysical research. Since 1989 it has been used as a people's observatory. Fall 1995 will signify the opening of a new building, which will include a larger planetarium. There will also be an exhibit room dedicated to Lockyer and especially focusing upon his spectroscopic instruments. Address: Salcombe Hill, Sidmouth, Devon EX10 0NY, U.K. In Linz, where Johannes Kepler lived from 1611 until 1626, there has existed since 1957 on the facade of the Altes Rathaus (old town hall) a medaillon with the portrait of the astronomer. The building is presently going through a renovation and revitilization. The Austrian Bundesdenkmalamt (Federal Department for Preservation of Historic Monuments) has not yet decided, whether or not the medallion will be placed up on the side of the Rathaus again after the restorations. - When one visits Linz one should also pay attention to the astronomical clock on the tower of the Altes Rathaus, as well as to a memorial tablet which stems from the year 1943. The latter is displayed over the entrance to the house (Rathausgasse 5) in which Johann Kepler once lived in 1625. On the occasion of Kepler's 400th birthday in 1971 the octagonal pavilion with a statue of Johann Kepler was re-errected in the park at Roemerstrasse (between the castle's museum entrance and Martins church). Formerly the pavilion was standing at another place. The statue is a copy of the wooden plastic in the hallway of the observatory Kremsmuenster. In addition, the Hochschule (college) of Linz has officially been named the "Alma mater Kepleriana" the same year. Also, in Linz there is a street named after Kepler ("Keplergasse"). (Sources: Martin Schwarzbach, "Auf den Spuren unserer Naturforscher", Stuttgart 1981; Fritz Mayrhofer, "Linz", Wien und Muenchen 1984; WWW: http://www.idv.uni-linz.ac.at/linzinfo/linztown/dokument/personen.htm; letter by Senatsrat Dr. Mayrhofer, Archiv der Stadt Linz, of 2 May 1995) On the 17th of June, 1995 the Bund Deutscher Vermessungsingenieure, Landesgruppe Thueringen, and the Deutscher Verein fuer Vermessungswesen, Landesverband Thueringen, invited for the unveiling of a memorial in memory of Peter Andreas Hansen on the Grosser Inselsberg (the highest mountain of the Thueringer Wald). This plaque should serve for the commemoration about the merits of the astronomer and geodesist for the triangulation in the Herzogtum Gotha. ........................................................................... Item 4 ENHA No. 11, Sep 22, 1995 ........................................................................... Meeting of the Working Group for the History of Astronomy at Bonn ----------------------------------------------------------------- The Meeting of the Working Group within the framework of the Fall Meeting of the Astronomische Gesellschaft took place on the 18th of September, 1995 in Bonn. The meeting and lectures began at 2pm. As in previous years, short summarys of the lectures are published in AG Abstract Series (No. 11, 1995). The place where the conference took place was the old observatory between Poppelsdorfer Allee, the Argelanderstrasse, and Bonner Talweg, not far from the main train station. This was built between 1840 and 1846. Karl Friedrich Schinkel took part in it's planning and construction. Unfortunately, it is not used by astronomers today. Just the separate dome is occupied by the Bonn People's Observatory. During the morning of the 18th of September there was a possibility to view the historic instruments of the old observatory (among them the heliometer, which is nearly identical to the famous heliometer of Bessel) which are on display at the Astronomical Institutes of the University in Bonn-Endenich, Auf dem Huegel 71. During a stay at Bonn, one can visit the grave of Argelander at the Old Cemetary, and that of Felix Hausdorff at the old Poppelsdorf Cemetary. To be seen is also the Alter Zoll (Old Customs), a platform which looks out over the Rhein River, where Argelander built his first provisional pavilion for observations of the stars. Information on this conference are available on the World Wide Web at the following address: http://aibn55.astro.uni-bonn.de:8000/~pbrosche/hist_astr/ha-bonn.html ........................................................................... Item 5 ENHA No. 11, Sep 22, 1995 ........................................................................... Meeting on the occasion of the 200th birthday of Peter Andreas Hansen --------------------------------------------------------------------- Gotha, September 16-17, 1995 A common meeting of the society Historische Sternwarten Gotha e.V., the Akademie gemeinnuetziger Wissenschaften zu Erfurt and the Working Group for the History of Astronomy. Lectures: --------- Saturday, 16 Sept., 2:30 PM Place: Arnoldischule (Staatl. Gymnasium Gotha), Eisenacher Str. 5 M. Strumpf: The Biography O. Schwarz: The archival situation W. R. Dick: Otto Struve on the relationship of Argelander and Hansen J. Kiefert: The Erfurt Academy of Sciences and astronomy - Accomplishments and possibilities R. Bien: The celestial mechanic H. Lenhardt: Hansen and geodesy H.-J. Kummer: Timekeepers and time measurements Tours: ------ Sunday, 17 Sept., 9.30 AM Meeting point: Southerly entrance to the yard in the castle Friedenstein (parking place) Observatory at Jaegerstrasse; Cartographic Museum; Research Library; Seeberg (place of the old observatory) Contact address: Manfred Strumpf, Heinoldsgasse 10, D-99867 Gotha, Tel.: 03621-402 485 Information on this conference are available on the World Wide Web at the following address: http://aibn55.astro.uni-bonn.de:8000/~pbrosche/hist_astr/ha-gotha.html ........................................................................... Item 6 ENHA No. 11, Sep 22, 1995 ........................................................................... Conference Calendar 1995 -------------------- July, Chetumal, Mexico Third International Mayanists Congress, including a session on Mayan astronomy and calendrics Chairman: Stanislaw Iwaniszewski, Mexico City 3 - 8 July, Paris, France IAU Symposium 172: Dynamics, Ephemerides ans Astrometry in the Solar system, on occation of the bicentennial of the Bureau des Longitudes, inludes also historical papers (Dr. Jean-Eudes Arlot, Bureau des Longitudes, 77 ave Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, E-mail: arlot@bdl.fr) 5 - 11 August, Mexico City, Mexico 17th International Congress of History of Religions, including a symposium on the relation between the Andean cults and the sky-lore Chairman: Mariusz Ziolkowski, e-mail andyuw@plearn.edu.pl 20 - 22 September, Bonn, Germany Meeting of the Driburg Circle (for students, doctoral candidates, and assistants) Theme: Methods in the Historiography of medicin, science and technology. Sign up until 1 August with: Martina Lorenz, Lehrstuhl fuer Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Universitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg 22 - 25 September, Bonn, Germany 78th annual meeting of the German Society for the History of Medicine, Science and Technology. Theme: The differences in gender in medicine, science, and technology. Sign up until 31 May with: Prof. Dr. Christoph Meinel, Lehrstuhl fuer Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Universitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg 29 September - 1 October, Debrecen, Hungary VII. Astronomical-Historical National Conference and 3rd International Sundial Conference. Central Theme: The history of the exploration of the sun and the sun's effects on the earth. (Judit Koczok, Koelcsey Mueveloedesie Koezpont, Hunyadi u. 1-3, H-4026 Debrecen, Tel.: +3652/413977, Fax: +3652/416040, E-mail: zajacz@fs2.date.hu) 20 - 21 October, Binghamton, New York CEMERS XXIX Annual Conference: Christine de Pizan: Texts/ Intertexts/ Contexts Papers may be delivered in French or English. Send proposals concerning astronomy, astrology, cosmology or related topics in Christine de Pizan or 14th Century France to: A.S. Weber, Organizer, Special Session on Cosmology, Box 217, Department of English, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY 13902 - 6000, USA, Phone: 607 - 777 - 2168, e-mail: br00126@bingsuns.cc.binghamton.edu 30 - 31 October, Nettetal (District Viersen), Germany 4. Duisburger Mercator-Symposium: The "mathematicus" - On the development and meaning of a new career-group in the time of Gerhard Mercator (among others, the theme of: The achievements of Gerhard Mercator and other "practical mathematicians" of the Renaissance in the areas of cartography and astronomy, instrument building, etc. as well as their contributions to cosmography, theology, etc.) Languages spoken at the conference: German an English Place: Schloss Krickenbeck Sign up until 30th of April with: Prof. Dr. Rene Dirven, G.-Mercator-Universitaet - GH Duisburg, Fachbereich 3, D-47048 Duisburg ........................................................................... Item 7 ENHA No. 11, Sep 22, 1995 ........................................................................... New Books --------- Bowen, Robert: Universal ice: science and ideology in the Nazi state. London: Belhaven Press, 1993. Pp. xiv, 189, illus., ISBN 1852931906 Daxecker, Franz: Briefe des Naturwissenschaftlers Christoph Scheiner SJ an Erzherzog Leopold V. von Oesterreich-Tirol, 1620 - 1632. [Letters of the natural scientists Christoph Scheiner SJ to Erzherzog Leopold V. of Austria-Tirol, 1620 - 1632] Innsbruck, 1995. 192 pp., 4 illus., ISBN 3-901249-21-4, oeS 220.00 / DM 35.00 [Gilligan, Gerard John:] William Lassell. [Liverpool]: Liverpool Astronomical Society, 1994. Pp. 27 (= North West Astronomers) Krautter, Joachim; Sedlmayr, Erwin; Schaifers, Karl; Traving, Gerhard: Meyers Handbuch Weltall. 7., voellig neu bearb. u. erweit. Aufl. Mannheim, Leipzig, Wien, Zuerich: Meyers Lexikonverlag, 1994, ISBN 3-411-07757-3 [pp. 615-631: Tables for the History of Astronomy] van der Krogt, Peter: Globi Neerlandici: The production of globes in the Low Countries. Utrecht: HES Publishers, 1993. Pp. 647, illus., part in colour, ISBN 90-6194-138-5, GBP 335.00 [sic] [Weight 3.8 kg; edition limited to 1000 copies; available via Sotheby's Books, PO Box 521, Kempston, Bedford MK42 7YY, UK] Zeeberg, Peter: Den praktiske muse: Tycho Brahes brug af latindigtingen. Kobenhavn: Museum Tusculanum, 1993. Pp. 55, ISBN 8772892552 (= Studier fra sprog- og oldtidsforskning, nr. 321) ........................................................................... Acknowledgements: ----------------- For information we thank: J.-E.Arlot (Paris), L. Bartha (Budapest), P.Brosche (Bonn), J.B.Carlson (Bladensburg, USA), F.Daxecker (Innsbruck), R.Dick (Elsterberg), LeRoy Doggett (Washinghton), G.J.Gilligan (Liverpool), K.-D.Herbst (Jena), S.Koge (Dresden), G.Lencer (Gotha), H.Rau (Berlin), J.Stegert (Bonn), M.Strumpf (Gotha), G.Wolfschmidt (Muenchen), A.Zenkert (Potsdam), Archiv der Stadt Linz. ........................................................................... Imprint ------- Electronic Newsletter for the History of Astronomy (ENHA) Published by the Working Group for the History of Astronomy in the Astronomische Gesellschaft A translation of "Elektronische Mitteilungen zur Astronomiegeschichte" Editor: Dr. Wolfgang R. Dick <wdi@potsdam.ifag.de> Translated by: Mr. Donald Bellunduno <76450.1741@compuserve.com> All news which is not mentioned by name are editorial contributions. Articles as well as information for the several sections will be gladly received. Subscription for the ENHA is free. In order to obtain a subscription inside Germany, one must first obtain a subscription for the printed Mitteilungen zur Astronomiegeschichte (MA). [Mitteilungen zur Astronomiegeschichte: Price: DM 1.50 / issue plus postage and packing costs outside Germany: free Subscription: Send in DM 2.50 (one issue) or DM 5.00 (Nos. 4-5) in stamps to the editor Editor: Dr. W. R. Dick, Otterkiez 14, D-14478 Potsdam, Germany, Tel.: (+331) 863199 ] Astronomische Gesellschaft / Astronomical Society: Chairman: Prof. Dr. Hanns Ruder, University of Tuebingen, Theoretical Astrophysics and Computational Physics, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, D-72076 Tuebingen Secretary: Dr. G. Klare, Landessternwarte, Koenigstuhl, D-69117 Heidelberg Arbeitskreis Astronomiegeschichte / Working Group for the History of Astronomy: Chairman: Prof. Dr. Peter Brosche, Observatorium Hoher List der Sternwarte der Universitaet Bonn, D-54550 Daun, Germany, Tel.: (+6592) 2150, Fax: (+6592) 2937 Secretary: Dr. Wolfgang R. Dick, Institut fuer Angewandte Geodaesie, Aussenstelle Potsdam, Postfach 60 08 08, D-14408 Potsdam, Germany, Tel.: (+331) 316 619, E-mail: wdi@potsdam.ifag.de (in the event I am not reachable at this address, please try the following address: dick@gfz-potsdam.de) Treasurer: Dr. Reinhard Schielicke, Universitaetssternwarte, Schillergaesschen 2, D-07745 Jena, Tel.: (+3641) 63 03 36, E-mail: schie@georg.astro.uni-jena.de Secretary for Public Relations: Dr. Gudrun Wolfschmidt, Deutsches Museum, Museumsinsel 1, D-80538 Muenchen, Germany, Tel.: (+89) 2179 277, Fax: (+89) 2179 324, E-mail: t7911ac@sunmail.lrz-muenchen.de Bank Acct. of the Working Group of the Astronomische Gesellschaft: Acct # 261 917, Sparkasse Mannheim (BLZ 670 501 01) Contributions from foreign countries, please sign with: "Fuer Arbeitskreis Astronomiegeschichte" to: acct # 162 18-203, Postgiroamt Hamburg, BLZ 200 400 20 *************************************************************************** Addendum by the Translator / Space Calendar - July 1995 ========================= SPACE CALENDAR ========================= * indicates changes from last month's calendar July 1995 Jul ?? - MSTI-3 Pegasus Launch * Jul ?? - TOMS Pegasus XL Launch Jul 29 - Delta-Aquarids Meteor Shower * Jul 31 - DSCS Atlas 2 Launch Jul 31 - Ulysses, Maximum Northern Latitude (80.22 degrees) August 1995 * Aug ?? - STS-69, Endeavour, Wake Shield Facility (WSF-2) * Aug ?? - Vitasat-Gemstar-1 LLV1 Launch Aug 01 - Alpha Capricornids Meteor Shower * Aug 01 - PAS-3R Ariane Launch Aug 03 - Koreasat-1 Delta 2 Launch * Aug 03 - Interball-Tail Molniya Launch (Russian) Aug 04 - Space Shuttle Express Mail Stamp, First Day of Issue, Irvine, California. * Aug 04 - METEOR Conestoga Launch * Aug 05 - Neil Armstrong's 65th Birthday (1930) * Aug 09 - Molniya-3 Molniya Launch (Russian) Aug 10 - 5th Anniversary (1990), Magellan Venus Orbit Insertion Aug 11 - Saturn Rings Edge-On from Earth's Perspective Aug 12 - Perseids Meteor Shower (Potential Meteor Storm) * Aug 15 - REX-II Pegasus XL Launch * Aug 15 - Resurs Soyuz Launch (Russian) * Aug 16 - JSCAT Atlas IIAS Launch Aug 17 - 25th Anniversary (1970), Venera 7 Launch (Venus Lander) Aug 18 - 10th Anniversary (1985), Suisei Launch (Halley's Comet Flyby) Aug 20 - 20th Anniversary (1975), Viking 1 Launch (Mars Lander/Orbiter) Aug 21 - 30th Anniversary (1965), Gemini 5 Launch Aug 22 - FAST (Fast Auroral Snapshot) XL Pegasus Launch Aug 23 - N-Star A Ariane Launch Aug 29 - Galileo, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #26 (TCM-26) * Aug 30 - SICH-1/FASAT Cyclone Launch (Russian) Aug 31 - XTE (X-Ray Timing Explorer) Delta 2 Launch * Aug 31 - Cosmos Proton-K Launch (Russian) September 1995 Sep ?? - Panamsat 4, Amos 1 Ariane Launch * Sep 01 - Soyuz TM-22 Launch (Russian) Sep 06 - Progress M-30 Launch (Russian) Sep 09 - 20th Anniversary (1975), Viking 2 Launch (Mars Orbiter/Lander) Sep 11 - 10th Anniversary (1985), ICE Flyby of Comet Giacobini-Zinner Sep 12 - 25th Anniversary (1970), Luna 16 Launch (Moon Sample Return) * Sep 13 - Telstar 402R Ariane 4 Launch Sep 14 - Saturn at Opposition Sep 15 - AsiaSat 2 Long March Launch (China) Sep 19 - Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) Ariane 4 Launch Sep 20 - RADARSAT/SURFSAT-1 Delta-2 Launch (Canada) Sep 21 - STS-73, Columbia, Spacelab USML-2 Sep 21 - Autumnal Equinox * Sep 21 - Luch-1 Proton-K Launch (Russian) Sep 29 - Ulysses, End of 2nd Solar Passage (70.05 degrees latitude) Sep 29 - SWAS (Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite) XL Pegasus Launch Sep 30 - Ulysses, End of Primary Mission October 1995 Oct 06 - 5th Anniversary (1990), Ulysses Launch Oct 08 - Punumbral Lunar Eclipse, Visible from Asia * Oct 08 - Workshop on Thermal Remote Sensing of Volcanoes on Io and Earth, Hawaii Oct 09 - Draconids Meteor Shower Oct 11 - 50th Anniversary (1945), JPL WAC Corporal Launch (1st Man-Made Object to Escape Earth's Atmosphere). Oct 18 - Seastar Pegasus Launch Oct 20 - 25th Anniversary (1970), Zond 8 Launch (Russian Moon Orbit & Return) Oct 22 - Orionids Meteor Shower Oct 22 - 20th Anniversary (1975), Venera 9 Venus Orbit Insertion & Landing Oct 24 - Solar Eclipse, Visible from Southeast Asia & Indonesia Oct 25 - 20th Anniversary (1975), Venera 10 Venus Orbit Insertion & Landing Oct 25 - UHF F/O 6 Atlas 2 Launch Oct 26 - STS-74, Atlantis, 2nd Mir Docking November 1995 Nov ?? - Astra 1E Ariane Launch Nov 01 - Echostar-1 Long March Launch (China) Nov 04 - Taurids Meteor Shower Nov 07 - SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) Atlas-2AS Launch (ESA/NASA) Nov 09 - Galileo, Jupiter Approach Global Image Nov 10 - Priroda Module Launch (Russian) Nov 10 - 25th Anniversary (1970), Luna 17 Launch (Russian Moon Rover) Nov 12 - 15th Anniversary (1980), Voyager 1, Saturn Flyby Nov 17 - Galileo, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #27 (TCM-27) Nov 17 - Leonids Meteor Shower Nov 18 - Saturn Rings Edge-On to the Sun, No Shadow Nov 22 - Progress M-31 Launch (Russian) Nov 23 - Asteroid 1993 WD, Near-Earth Flyby (0.1789 AU) Nov 27 - Galileo, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #28 (TCM-28) Nov 30 - STS-72, Endeavour, Space Flyer Unit Retrieval December 1995 Dec ?? - P91-1/Argos Delta-2 Launch Dec ?? - LIFESAT-03 Launch Dec ?? - Data Relay Satellite Launch (ESA) Dec ?? - Telecom 2C Ariane Launch Dec ?? - Koreasat-2 Delta 2 Launch Dec ?? - Inmarsat-3 Atlas 2A Launch Dec ?? - Pioneer 11, End of Mission? Dec 02 - Galileo, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #28A (TCM-28A) Dec 04 - 30th Anniversary (1965), Gemini 7 Launch Dec 07 - Galileo, Io Gravity Assist Dec 08 - Galileo, Jupiter Orbit Insertion (JOI), 12:23 AM UTC Dec 08 - 5th Anniversary (1990), Galileo Earth-1 Flyby Dec 09 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #1 (OTM-1) Dec 12 - 25th Anniversary (1970), Explorer 42 Launch, 1st Orbiting X-Ray Astronomy Platform Dec 13 - Geminids Meteor Shower Dec 15 - 30th Anniversary (1965), Gemini 6 Launch Dec 15 - 25th Anniversary (1970), Venera 7, Venus landing Dec 16 - 30th Anniversary (1965), Pioneer 6 Launch Dec 19 - Galileo, Solar Conjunction Dec 19 - POLAR Delta Launch Dec 21 - Winter Solstice Dec 22 - Ursids Meteor Shower Dec 25 - Soyuz TM-23 Launch (Russian) Dec 29 - NOAA-K Titan 2 Launch January 1996 Jan ?? - VSOP Launch Jan 01 - 195th Anniversary (1801), Discovery of the First Asteroid (Ceres) by Piazzi Jan 02 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #2 (OTM-2) Jan 03 - Quadrantids Meteor Shower Jan 15 - 20th Anniversary (1976), Helios-2 Launch (Solar Orbiter) Jan 17 - Cluster Ariane 5 Launch (ESA/NASA) Jan 18 - Asteroid 1992 QN Near-Earth Flyby (0.1588 AU) Jan 24 - Asteroid Aten Near-Earth Flyby (0.2234 AU) Jan 24 - 10th Anniversary (1986), Voyager 2 Uranus Flyby Jan 28 - 10th Anniversary (1986), Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion Jan 31 - 25th Anniversary (1971), Apollo 14 Launch Jan 31 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Luna 9 Launch (Russian Moon Lander) February 1996 Feb ?? - MSX Delta 2 Launch Feb 01 - ADEOS/NSCAT Launch Feb 04 - Clyde Tombaugh's 90th Birthday (1906) Feb 04 - Comet Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova Near-Earth Flyby (0.1702 AU) Feb 11 - Saturn, Rings Edge-On from Earth's Perspective Feb 14 - Chiron, Perihelion Feb 15 - STS-75, Columbia, Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1R) Feb 16 - NEAR Delta 2 Launch (Asteroid Eros Orbiter) Feb 19 - 10th Anniversary (1986), Mir Space Station Launch (Russian) Feb 22 - Venus/Moon Occultation, Visible from Hawaii March 1996 Mar ?? - Astra 1F Proton Launch (Russian) Mar 01 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Venera 3 Impact on Venus Mar 04 - 215th Anniversary (1781), Herschel's Discovery of Uranus Mar 06 - 10th Anniversary (1986), Vega 1, Comet Halley Flyby Mar 08 - 10th Anniversary (1986), Suisei, Comet Halley Flyby Mar 09 - 10th Anniversary (1986), Vega 2, Comet Halley Flyby Mar 11 - 10th Anniversary (1986), Sakigake, Comet Halley Flyby Mar 13 - 10th Anniversary (1986), Giotto, Comet Halley Flyby Mar 16 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Gemini 8 Launch Mar 21 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #3 (OTM-3) Mar 21 - STS-76, Atlantis, 3rd Shuttle-Mir Mission, SPACEHAB Mar 28 - 10th Anniversary (1986), ICE, Comet Halley Flyby Mar 31 - Asteroid 1990 VA, Near-Earth Flyby (0.2253 AU) Mar 31 - Asteroid Bacchus, Near-Earth Flyby (0.0678 AU) Mar 31 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Luna 10 Launch, 1st Moon Orbiter April 1996 Apr 3-4 - Lunar Eclipse Apr 03 - ARD Ariane Launch Apr 12 - 35th Anniversary (1961), 1st Man in Space, Yuri Gagarin Apr 12 - 15th Annivesrary (1981), 1st Space Shuttle Launch, Columbia, STS-1 Apr 17 - 20th Anniversary (1976), Helios-2 Perihelion (.29 AU from Sun) Apr 17 - Partial Solar Eclipse, Visible from New Zealand Apr 19 - 25th Anniversary (1971), Salyut 1 Launch, 1st Space Station (Russian) Apr 20 - Lyrids Meteor Shower Apr 25 - STS-77, Endeavour, SPACEHAB-4 May 1996 May 01 - 35th Anniversary (1961), 1st US Man in Space, Alan Shephard May 11 - 80th Anniversary (1916), Albert Einstein's General Theory of Relativity May 14 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #4 (OTM-4) May 18 - Asteroid 1991 JR, Near-Earth Flyby (0.1087 AU) May 19 - 25th Anniversary (1971), Mars 2 Launch (Russian Mars Orbiter/Lander) May 25 - 35th Anniversary (1961), John F. Kennedy's Moon Goal Speech May 28 - 25th Anniversary (1971), Mars 3 Launch (Russian Mars Orbiter/Lander) May 29 - Ariane-502 Launch May 30 - 25th Anniversary (1971), Mariner 9 Launch (Mars Orbiter) May 30 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Surveyor 1 Launch (Moon Soft Lander) June 1996 Jun ?? - LIFESAT-04 Delta 2 Launch Jun ?? - SMEX-07 Launch Jun ?? - NOAA-L Launch Jun 03 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Gemini 9 Launch Jun 04 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #5 (OTM-5) Jun 11 - Asteroid Icarus Near-Earth Flyby (0.1012 AU) Jun 16 - Asteroid 1990MU Near-Earth Flyby (0.2499 AU) Jun 27 - STS-78, Columbia, Life & Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) July 1996 * Jul ?? - NOAA-M Titan 2 Launch * Jul 01 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #6 (OTM-6) * Jul 04 - Galileo, 1st Ganymede Flyby (Orbit 1) * Jul 09 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #7 (OTM-7) * Jul 18 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Gemini 10 Launch * Jul 20 - 20th Anniversary (1976), Viking 1 Mars Landing * Jul 21 - 35th Anniversary (1961), Mercury 4 Launch * Jul 26 - 25th Anniversary (1971), Apollo 15 Launch ___ _____ ___ /_ /| /____/ \ /_ /| Ron Baalke | baalke@kelvin.jpl.nasa.gov | | | | __ \ /| | | | Jet Propulsion Lab | ___| | | | |__) |/ | | |__ Galileo S-Band | Good happens. /___| | | | ___/ | |/__ /| Pasadena, CA | |_____|/ |_|/ |_____|/ |